"The challenges of the Portuguese civil society towards the current social and economic context"
What is civil society?
The Portuguese Constitution describes civil society organizations from an economic point of view as the third sector. In Article 82 it has been foreseen the “coexistence of three sectors of ownership of the means of production”. Therefore, side by side with the public and private sectors, there is a “cooperative and social sector” which includes: cooperatives, “communitarian production means”, owned and managed by local communities” and those which are “collectively run by workers” (the so-called self-managed companies), as well as “Means of production owned and managed by nonprofit bodies corporate, the primary objective of which is charitable, particularly bodies of a mutualistic nature.”